Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine was launched in 1979 as the official scientific periodical of the Sociedade de Medicina Veterinária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (SOMVERJ). </p> <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or their institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other legal purpose, without asking for prior permission from the editor or author, provided they are cited. The font is licensed by Creative Commons Attribution International CC-BY.</p> <p><strong>ISSN 0100-2430</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN-e 2527-2179.</strong></p> <p> </p> Sociedade de Medicina Veterinária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. en-US Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 0100-2430 Autonomic and hemodynamic effects of pre-anesthetic use of clonidine in healthy dogs <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-anesthetic use of clonidine on time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial blood pressure in healthy anesthetized dogs. Six healthy adult mixed-breed dogs were administered a clonidine (clonidine group, CLG) and 30 days later, a placebo (control group, CG) preanesthetic protocol, in addition to propofol, isoflurane, and an bolus of tramadol and the continuous infusion thereafter. The total time mean values of HRV meanNN, SDNN, SDANN, SDNNI, and rMSSD were higher in the CL group, as observed in some HRV variables on tramadol bolus time (T4), tramadol continuous infusion (T8), and tracheal extubation time (T10). No significant differences in arterial blood pressure were observed, however, two dogs had a second-degree atrioventricular block (Mobitz II) at the tramadol bolus time (T4). These results led us to conclude that the clonidine anesthetic protocol resulted in sympathetic outflow block and an increase in parasympathetic tone, without significant effects on blood pressure. Notably, cardiac electrical disturbance in two dogs in the CL group. Although the pre-anesthetic use of clonidine in dogs with fear-based behavioral problems should be considered, its association with tramadol should be avoided or carried out with caution owing to the existing cardiovascular risk.</p> João Paulo da Exaltação Pascon Fernanda Melo de Oliveira Marilia Avila Valandro Diane Jaqueline Waschburger Roberto Thiesen Copyright (c) 2022 João Paulo da Exaltação Pascon, Fernanda Melo de Oliveira, Marilia Avila Valandro, Diane Jaqueline Waschburger, Roberto Thiesen 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 44 e005022 e005022 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm005022 Detection of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Peru <p>Fish farms are one of the principal food industries located in peri-urban and rural communities that use available resources to ensure the quality of their products. However, trout can suffer from bacterial infections affecting the sector and being a key component of human health risk. We aimed to identify and characterize Enterobacteriaceae in 46 trout (<em>Oncorhynchus mykiss</em>) in two fish farms in Lima, Peru. Adult trouts older than seven weeks (&gt; 200 grams weight) were included. Cultures were performed in duplicate (n=192 trials) with swabs from the squamous surface and visceral cavity. The isolates were identified with the Vitek® 2 Compact system, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were interpreted with the CLSI VET 03-A guide. At El Molino and El Angelito fish farms, 66 (68.8%) and 57 (59.4%) isolates were obtained. The most frequently isolated species were <em>Escherichia coli </em>(56.8%), <em>Proteus sp. </em>(4.2%) and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>(2.6%). <em>E. coli </em>was present in all sampling areas, and <em>Aeromonas hydrophila </em>was only present in one open viscera sample at El Angelito fish farm. <em>A. hydrophila </em>showed antibiotic resistance to Ampicillin/Sulbactam (≥32 MIC), Oxytetracycline (&gt;8 MIC), Imipenem (8 MIC), Levofloxacin (&gt;8 MIC), and Ceftazidime (≥64 MIC). Our results suggest the presence of multi-resistant <em>A. hydrophila </em>in <em>O. mykiss</em>. Further studies are needed to understand the developmental context of A. hydrophila, which is crucial to the food industry, aquaculture and public health</p> Jeel Moya-Salazar Carmen Rosa Díaz Betsy Cañari Renato Xavier Badillo Mario Verano-Zelada Karina Chicoma-Flores Hans Contreras-Pulache Copyright (c) 2022 Jeel Moya-Salazar, Carmen Rosa Díaz, Betsy Cañari, Renato Xavier Badillo, Mario Verano-Zelada, Karina Chicoma-Flores, Hans Contreras-Pulache 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 44 e000922 e000922 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm000922 Salmon poisoning disease in dogs: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment <p>Salmon poisoning disease (SPD) is caused by a rickettsial organism, <em>Neorickettsia helminthoeca, </em>that is carried by the trematode <em>Nanophyetus salmincola, </em>which encysts in freshwater fish, most commonly salmonids. We reported two dogs from the United States West Coast that had similar clinical signs, hematologic and biochemistry findings. They were both diagnosed with salmon poisoning disease. Lymph node cytology showed morula formation, suggestive of <em>N. helminthoeca </em>organisms in macrophages, while the parasitological fecal test found ova of <em>N. salmincola</em>. The dogs were treated early and showed complete remission of clinical signs within a few days. Lymph node cytology and fecal parasitology are quick and low-cost tests that can be performed whenever SPD is suspected. SPD should be considered as a differential diagnosis for a canine patient with clinical signs of vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and lymphadenomegaly; laboratory findings of thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia; and potential exposure to raw fish from the West Coast of the US or Southern Brazil. The earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the greater the chance of survival</p> Adriana Pereira Furtado Hannah Cohen Aditi Handa Jane Wardrop Cleverson de Souza Copyright (c) 2022 Adriana Pereira Furtado , Hannah Cohen, Aditi Handa, Jane Wardrop, Cleverson de Souza 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 44 e004822 e004822 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm004822 Clinical cases of infectious endocarditis in cats <p>Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a contagious polyposis ulcerative inflammation of the endocardium, accompanied by lesions of the heart valve apparatus and endothelium by various pathogenic and opportunistic pathogens. Mainly mitral and aortic valves are affected, less often - tricuspid valve. The purpose of this study was to report two cases of IE in cats. Due to the low prevalence of the disease in cats, there is no clear diagnostic algorithm, so the diagnostic search is complicated. In both cases, autonomic lesions of the heart valve apparatus were observed. In the first clinical case, we could hardly diagnose the disease because of its rapid progression: initial echocardiogram result was normal, but after 48 hours, the cat’s condition became much worse, and 18 hours later, it died. In the second case, histopathological examination confirmed an infectious inflammatory process of the endocardium and myocardium of unclear genesis. However, the presence of lower respiratory tract infection and the absence of additional laboratory tests, such as bacterial blood culture and PCR diagnosis, limited us in proposing a hypothesis about the origin and etiology of IE.</p> Tatiana Vladimirovna Sereda Marina Alekseevna Petrova Ilya Vitalievich Popov Igor Vitalievich Popov Sergey Nikolaevich Kartashov Alexey Mikhailovich Ermakov Copyright (c) 2022 Tatiana Vladimirovna Sereda, Marina Alekseevna Petrova, Ilya Vitalievich Popov, Igor Vitalievich Popov, Sergey Nikolaevich Kartashov, Alexey Mikhailovich Ermakov 2022-11-03 2022-11-03 44 e002322 e002322 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm002322 Undetectable proviral DNA and viral RNA levels after raltegravir administration in two cats with natural feline leukemia virus infection <p>Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection was discovered over 50 years ago; however, the serious clinical changes associated with FeLV infection still have great importance in the diagnosis, prevention, and clinical management of symptomatic patients. Progressive infection with FeLV leads to a reduction in the patient’s life expectancy and quality of life. This report describes the use of an antiretroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir, in two cats with natural FeLV infection. Raltegravir was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/ cat every 12 h in both cases. In case one, 13 weeks after starting raltegravir, RNA loads were undetectable, while proviral DNA loads were still detectable. In case two, proviral DNA loads were undetectable after 32 weeks of medication, while RNA loads were undetectable throughout the treatment. No adverse effects or laboratory test abnormalities were detected with the use of raltegravir in either patient. The patients are currently clinically healthy, still receiving the drug, and are under close observation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of raltegravir in naturally infected FeLV-positive cats and its effects on circulating viral load. Moreover, the patients described here were followed-up for a longer period than those in previously reported cases.</p> Carla Regina Gomes Rodrigues Santos Isabela Torres Ferreira Renata Beranger Julia Possebon Santi Mariana Palha de Brito Jardim Heloisa Justen Moreira de Souza Copyright (c) 2022 Carla Regina Gomes Rodrigues Santos, Isabela Torres Ferreira, Renata Beranger, Julia Possebon Santi, Mariana Palha de Brito Jardim, Heloisa Justen Moreira de Souza 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 44 e003522 e003522 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003522